Same-sex marriage in Maryland has been legal since January 1, 2013. In 2012, the state's Democratic representatives, led by Governor Martin O'Malley, began a campaign for its legalization. After much debate, a law permitting same-sex marriage was passed by the General Assembly (Maryland's bicameral legislature, composed of the Senate and House of Delegates) in February 2012 and signed on March 1, 2012. The law took effect on January 1, 2013 after 52.4% of voters approved the law in a statewide referendum held on November 6, 2012. The vote was hailed as a watershed moment by gay rights activists and marked the first time marriage rights in the United States have been extended to same-sex couples by popular vote.
At the rise of the same-sex marriage movement in the early 1970s, Maryland established the first law in the United States that expressly defined marriage to be a union between a man and a woman. Attempts to both ban and legalize same-sex marriage in the 1990s and 2000s failed to gain enough support from central committees of the state legislature. Roman Catholic authorities throughout the state were adamantly opposed to the legalization of same-sex marriage, saying it deeply conflicted with the best interests of society and would threaten religious liberty. The debates produced disputes between individuals who had been traditionally aligned on causes and prompted sharp criticism from African-American religious leaders who said same-sex marriage would "disrupt the fabric of the culture."
Before passage of the Civil Marriage Protection Act, the state recognized same-sex marriages performed in other jurisdictions following the 2010 release of a legal opinion from Attorney General Doug Gansler in his nine-month analysis of comity laws. In 2012, the Maryland Court of Appeals maintained Gansler's analysis and issued a unanimous decision in Port v. Cowan finding that a same-sex marriage performed out-of-state must be considered equal and valid under state law, despite its earlier decision in Conaway v. Deane (2007) in which the court upheld the statutory ban on same-sex marriage as constitutional.
Maryland holds a unique place in the history of same-sex marriage in the United States. In 1973, the state legislature became the first in the nation to approve a law that expressly defined "only a marriage between a man and a woman" as valid. The General Assembly passed the law a short time after voters in the state ratified Article 46 of the Maryland Declaration of Rights, commonly referred to as the Equal Rights Amendment, in November 1972. The constitutional provision prohibited discrimination in equality of rights on the basis of sex.
During the 1990s, attempts to both ban and legalize same-sex marriage did not pass through the legislature. After the Maryland House of Delegates Judiciary Committee voted in March 2004 to reject a pair of marriage bills that would have submitted a constitutional amendment against same-sex marriage to voters and invalidated same-sex marriages performed in another state or foreign country, the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and Equality Maryland filed a lawsuit, Deane & Polyak v. Conaway, to challenge the existing law on behalf of nine same-sex couples and one bereaved man. The lead plaintiffs of the suit, from whom the case received its name, were Gita Deane, a learning specialist at Goucher College, and her partner Lisa Polyak, an environmental engineer for the U.S. Army Medical Department. The named plaintiffs had applied for marriage licenses in several different Maryland counties but were denied by court officials. In their complaint, the plaintiffs argued that the state's statutory ban on same-sex marriage violated constitutional protections of due process, equality, and prohibitions against sex discrimination in Articles 24 and 46 of the Maryland Declaration of Rights.
In January 2006, Baltimore Circuit Court Judge M. Brooke Murdock granted summary judgment to the plaintiffs, writing that "Family law §2-201 violates Article 46 of the Maryland Declaration of Rights because it discriminates, based on gender against a suspect class, and is not narrowly tailored to serve any compelling governmental interests." She added that "tradition and social values alone cannot support adequately a discriminatory statutory classification," because "when tradition is the guise under which prejudice or animosity hides, it is not a legitimate state interest." The judge immediately stayed the decision pending an appeal by the Attorney General of Maryland, which occurred later that day.
While the decision was favored by the plaintiffs, gay rights groups and their supporters, including more than 100 religious leaders and child welfare advocates across the state who filed amicus briefs, other local religious leaders and evangelical ministers were upset by the decision and looked to state legislators to propose a constitutional ban on same-sex marriage. Such an amendment was favored by then-Governor Robert Erlich who said "my politics on this are very clear. We're going to protect marriage. Traditional marriage." In February 2006, the proposed ban was rejected after opponents successfully amended it to legalize civil unions.
Consequently, Delegate Don Dwyer introduced a resolution to impeach Judge Murdock in 2006, alleging "misbehavior in office, [willful] neglect of duty, and incompetency" for her trial court decision; in 2007, he introduced a law that would ban discussion of same-sex unions in public schools. One lawmaker said "It is a clear attempt to intimidate judges and to make the judiciary subservient to the legislature," and Michael Conroy, former President of the Maryland State Bar Association, said that "No basis in fact or law exists to support any suggestion to impeach Murdock for her recent decision on same-sex marriage." David Rocah, an attorney for the ACLU, called the resolution "a frivolous, dangerous and extremist response from the lunatic fringe." Both of the measures failed to pass through committee.
Conaway v. Deane & PolyakEdit
The Court of Appeals, Maryland's highest court, agreed to hear the state's appeal in 2006, bypassing the intermediate court. To the surprise of spectators, there were almost no questions from the judges during oral argument, which took place on December 4, 2006, causing speculation that the court may have taken the appeal just to reverse the Circuit Court ruling. On September 18, 2007, the court issued its decision in Conaway v. Deane, overturning the trial court ruling for the plaintiffs in a 4–3 decision, and holding that the statutory ban on same-sex marriage did not violate the Maryland Constitution.
Judge Glenn T. Harrell, Jr. wrote that because the statute equally barred both men and women from marrying partners of the same sex, it was not discriminatory on the basis of sex and thus, does not violate the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) as plaintiffs argued. Judge Harrell said that the ERA was intended to prohibit sex discrimination against women and did not apply to this case, which he said was a matter of sexual orientation. Judge Lynne A. Battaglia wrote a dissenting opinion stating that the statutes and ordinances in Maryland barring discrimination based on sexual orientation, in addition to the state's lack of prohibiting LGBT adoption and its recognition of same-sex couples as co-parents, support the argument that denying committed same-sex couples the full benefits and privileges of marriage is not related to any rational government interest. Judge Battaglia said she would have remanded the case to circuit court for a full trial in order to settle what she deemed a central factual issue: whether the state could demonstrate that it had "broad societal interest" in retaining marriage in the traditional form. The dissenting opinion from Chief Judge Robert M. Bell faulted the majority for not recognizing gay people as a suspect class in need of protection from discrimination. He dismissed the majority view that gays are politically empowered and should not be viewed as constituting such a class.
Evan Wolfson, founder of Freedom to Marry, said that the decision was "deeply flawed" because the 4–3 majority did not answer the question of how denying marriage to same-sex couples affects the ability of heterosexual couples to procreate. Then–President of the Human Rights Campaign, Joe Solmonese, called the decision a "setback" and Ken Choe, the ACLU attorney who argued on behalf of the plaintiffs, expressed hope that, unlike the majority of the bench, the state legislature would be able to see "that lesbian and gay couples form committed relationships and loving families just like heterosexual couples."
Recognition of out-of-state marriagesEdit
State Senator Richard Madaleno requested in 2009 that the Attorney General answer the question of whether same-sex marriages could be recognized by the state. In February 2010, Doug Gansler issued an opinion after a nine-month analysis of state laws stating that valid same-sex marriages performed in other states that permit same-sex marriage could be recognized under Maryland law. Gansler stated that the opinion was not binding on the courts and state agencies could begin immediately to recognize out-of-state same-sex marriages. He said that he expected the opinion to be quickly challenged in court.
The opinion garnered negative reactions from some Republicans, socially conservative Democrats, and several African-American lawmakers, including delegates Emmett C. Burns, Jr. and Don Dwyer, who spoke out against the opinion and promised to initiate impeachment proceedings against Gansler. "It is not up to the attorney general, and that's the reason I will be bringing charges of impeachment," Dwyer said in statement where he described the attorney general as usurping the law. The Roman Catholic archbishops of Washington and Baltimore and the bishop of Wilmington also took "strong exception" to the decision.
Port v. CowanEdit
Recognition of same-sex marriages from other states became precedent when the Court of Appeals agreed to hear a case from Prince George's County, where two women who were legally married in California had been denied a divorce by the circuit court. On May 18, 2012, the court published a unanimous ruling in Port v. Cowan that validated the marriage of Jessica Port and Virginia Cowan because it said "no viable decision by the Court had deemed a valid foreign marriage to be 'repugnant'," even if the marriage was void or punishable as a crime were it performed in Maryland. The opinion cited conflicts that arose from decisions in Anne Arundel and St. Mary’s counties where two same-sex couples had their petitions for divorce granted, and another case in Baltimore City where it was denied. The decision of the court was based on the state's traditional use of the common law doctrine of comity, which specifies that Maryland "will give effect to laws and judicial decisions of another state or jurisdiction, not as a matter of obligation but out of deference and respect."
After the Court of Appeals upheld the statutory ban on same-sex marriage in 2007, state senator Gwendolyn Britt of Landover Hills, along with delegates Victor R. Ramirez and Benjamin S. Barnes, sought to sponsor a marriage bill in the legislature. On January 12, 2008, Britt died of heart failure. Equality Maryland executive director Dan Furmansky, who originally approached Britt to sponsor the legislation, said her death was a "devastating loss, but civil rights struggles are greater than any one person, and as our fight for equality in Maryland continues, her spirit will be with us." On January 25, 2008, the Religious Freedom and Civil Marriage Protection Act was introduced in the House of Delegates. The Senate version of the bill was introduced by senators Richard Madaleno and Jamie Raskin the same day. Advocates held a rally in support of the bill on February 11, 2008, but it ultimately failed in committee, alongside a constitutional ban introduced by Don Dwyer.
While early efforts to legalize same-sex marriage failed, the legislature approved two bills in 2008 that granted all unmarried couples certain domestic partnership rights, including the ability to make hospital and nursing home visits, end-of-life choices and other medical decisions, in addition to rights to joint property ownership. Domestic partners must be at least 18 years old and be able to provide an affidavit attesting to their relationship along with two documents, such as joint checking accounts, mortgages or car leases; coverage on health insurance policies or the designation as a primary beneficiary in a will. The laws went into effect on July 1, 2008.
Civil Marriage Protection ActEdit
The General Assembly first considered the Civil Marriage Protection Act in 2011. Governor Martin O'Malley stated that he would sign the bill, despite urges from then-Archbishop of Baltimore Edwin Frederick O'Brien requesting that he "resist pressure to do so." O’Malley said "I have concluded that discriminating against individuals based on their sexual orientation in the context of civil marital rights is unjust. I have also concluded that treating the children of families headed by same-sex couples with lesser protections under the law than the children of families headed by heterosexual parents, is also unjust." On February 24, 2011, the Senate, which was thought to be the biggest obstacle to passage, approved the bill in a 25–21 vote. The House of Delegates proved to be a challenge, where same-sex marriage advocates struggled to gain support from social conservatives from Prince George's County, southern Maryland, and the Baltimore suburbs who cited religious concerns.
The debate highlighted disagreements between openly gay lawmakers and some black lawmakers on whether same-sex marriage is a matter of civil rights. Delegate Emmett C. Burns, Jr. said: "If you want to compare same-sex marriage to civil rights as I know it, show me the Ku Klux Klan that invaded your home." Delegate Keiffer J. Mitchell, Jr., grandson of NAACP chief lobbyist Clarence M. Mitchell, Jr., said "It is a civil rights issue when we as a state and a government deny equal protection under the law." Several delegates who originally co-sponsored the bill began to express doubts after being lobbied by church-going constituents, including Sam Arora and Tiffany Alston, who delayed the bill's vote in the House Judiciary Committee by skipping the voting session. The bill passed through the committee after its chairman, who rarely votes in committee, voted in favor. The House Majority Whip opposed the bill. Despite pleas from gay lawmakers, the House of Delegates voted to send the bill back to committee on March 11, 2011 and would not reconsider it before January 2012.
The Civil Marriage Protection Act was reintroduced to the General Assembly on January 23, 2012. The new version of the bill contained provisions that more explicitly protects religious leaders, institutions, and their programs from legal action if they refuse to officiate or provide facilities for a same-sex marriage or couple as a matter of their doctrine. During the legislative process, several high-profile political figures attempted to persuade legislators to vote in favor of the bill, including former President Bill Clinton, former Vice President Dick Cheney, Terry McAuliffe, and Ken Mehlman. The House of Delegates passed the bill with a 72–67 vote on February 17, 2012 and the Senate passed with a 25–22 vote on February 23, 2012. To secure support from some lawmakers who desired to submit the law to public referendum, the bill was amended to take effect on January 1, 2013.
Governor O'Malley signed the bill on March 1, 2012. In June 2012, referendum supporters submitted 109,313 valid signatures to the state secretary, more than the 55,736 required for a ballot in Maryland. The language of Referendum Question 6 informed voters that the Civil Marriage Protection Act would allow same-sex couples to obtain a civil marriage license, protect clergy from having to perform any particular marriage ceremony in violation of their religious beliefs, and affirm that each religious faith has exclusive control over its own theological doctrine regarding who may marry within that faith. On November 6, 2012, the measure passed with 52.4% of the vote. On November 29, 2012, the attorney general issued a legal opinion stating that court clerks could accept applications for same-sex marriage licenses immediately and issue them on December 6, 2012, as long as the effective date on the licenses specified January 1, 2013. 21 out of the 24 counties in Maryland chose to issue the licenses ahead of schedule.
A study from the University of California, Los Angeles estimated in 2007 that extending marriage rights to same-sex couples would result in a net gain of approximately $3.2 million each year to the state budget. The study drew on data from the U.S. Census Bureau and Maryland statistical reports. The gain is attributable to savings in expenditures on means-tested public benefit programs and an increase in sales and lodging tax revenue from weddings and wedding-related tourism.
Another Williams Institute study conducted in February 2012 estimated that in the first three years after the law takes effect, Maryland same-sex couples will generate between $40 and $64 million for the state economy, in addition to whatever revenue out-of-state couples bring. Several dozen small employers in the state have also said that same-sex marriage will be good for their businesses, helping to attract and retain talent.
|Date of opinion poll||Conducted by||Sample size|
|In favor||Opposed||Undecided||Margin of Error|
|January 12–16, 2011||Grove Insight||700||49%||41%||10%||±3.7%|
|January 13–19, 2011||Gonzales Research & Marketing Strategies||802||51%||44%||5%||±3.5%|
|January 27 – February 7, 2011||Lawrence Research||600||37%||54%||3%||±4.1%|
|January 9–15, 2012||Gonzales Research & Marketing Strategies||808||49%||47%||4%||±3.5%|
|January 23–26, 2012||The Washington Post||1,064||50%||44%||6%||±3.5%|
|March 5–7, 2012||Public Policy Polling||600||52%||44%||4%||±3.5%|
|May 14–21, 2012||Public Policy Polling||852||57%||37%||6%||±3.5%|
|October 11–15, 2012 ||The Washington Post||1,106||52%||43%||5%||±3.5%|
The Lawrence Research poll was conducted by Gary Lawrence, an opponent of same-sex marriage, for the National Organization for Marriage (NOM). Eric Hartley of The Capital described this poll as a push poll intended to influence responders to give answers desired by NOM because the poll asked for the opinion of the voter personally on the issue, not the opinion of the proposed law. The stated methodology mentions no normalizing tests, and respondents were found by auto-dialing random digits until they reached a sufficient number of registered voters, rather than using a statistical representation of Maryland's electorate. The Public Policy poll from May, taken a few days after President Barack Obama announced support for same-sex marriage, showed a significant shift in support among African-American and Hispanic voters in Maryland, where support for the law hit 55% and 51%, respectively.
- Equality Maryland
- Gender Rights Maryland
- Maryland Question 6
- LGBT rights in Maryland
- Same-sex marriage in the United States
- Timeline of same-sex marriage in the United States
- Rights and benefits of marriages in the United States
- Public opinion of same-sex marriage in the United States
- ↑ Honan, Edith. "Maryland, Maine, Washington approve gay marriage", November 7, 2012. Retrieved on February 14, 2013.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 O’Malley, archbishop at odds over same-sex marriage, letters show. Washingtonpost.com (December 21, 2011). Retrieved on December 29, 2011.
- ↑ Broadwater, Luke. "Md. bishops call on Catholics to oppose same-sex marriage", November 9, 2011. Retrieved on March 17, 2013.
- ↑ Selway, William. "Black Shift on Maryland Gay Marriage Pits Clergy Against NAACP", Bloomberg, October 19, 2012. Retrieved on March 9, 2013.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Rich, Eric, and Wagner, John. "Maryland High Court Upholds Same-Sex Marriage Ban", September 18, 2007. Retrieved on March 3, 2013.
- ↑ Smith, Van. "Inside the Crusade to Kill Maryland’s New Marriage-Equality Law", October 3, 2013. Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ History and Timeline of the Freedom to Marry in the United States. freedomtomarry.org. Retrieved on March 7, 2013.
- ↑ Maryland Code, Family Law §2-201 (1973-2013). mgaleg.maryland.gov. Retrieved on March 7, 2013.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 Murdock, Judge M. Brooke. Deane v. Conaway, 24-C-04-005390 (2006). state.md.us. Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ Declaration of Rights. msa.maryland.gov. Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ Staff. "Death of a Gay-Marriage Ban", April 29, 1997. Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ House Bill 609 (1997). mgaleg.maryland.gov (December 1, 1997). Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ House Bill 398 (1997). mgaleg.maryland.gov (December 1, 1997). Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 Langfitt, Frank. "Lawsuit challenges state law barring same-sex marriage", July 8, 2004. Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ About the Plaintiffs. aclu.org. Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ "The Struggle for Equality in Maryland" Examines Campaign to Legalize Same-Sex Marriage. goucher.edu (October 26, 2006). Retrieved on January 24 2013.
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 Complaint: Deane & Polyak v. Conaway (PDF) (2004). Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ Case Profile: Deane & Polyak v. Conaway. aclu.org (January 1, 2008). Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 Liptak, Adam. "Maryland Judge Voids Ban on Same-Sex Marriage; State Quickly Appeals", The New York Times, January 21, 2006. Retrieved on February 21, 2012.
- ↑ Murdock, Judge M. Brooke. Deane v. Conaway, 24-C-04-005390 (2006). state.md.us. Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ Murdock, Judge M. Brooke. Deane v. Conaway, 24-C-04-005390 (2006). state.md.us. Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 "Judge strikes down Maryland anti-gay marriage ban", January 26, 2006. Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ Jordan, Phyllis. "Same-Sex Marriage: Good for Kids?", December 1, 2006. Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ Kwon, Lillian. Constitutional Ban on Gay Marriage Picks Up Heat in Maryland. The Christian Post. christianpost.com. Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ Mosk, Matthew. "Democrats in Md. Try to Limit Fallout Of Gay Union Case", January 25, 2006. Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ Brewington, Kelly. "Marriage measure rejected", Baltimore Sun, February 3, 2006. Retrieved on January 25, 2008.
- ↑ House Bill 48 (2006). mgaleg.maryland.gov (June 6, 2006). Retrieved on November 4, 2012.
- ↑ 28.0 28.1 Kelly Brewington and Jennifer Skalka (February 27, 2006). Dwyer to Push for Judge's Impeachment. baltimoresun.com. Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ House Bill 919 (2007). mgaleg.maryland.gov (October 3, 2007). Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ Lynsen, Joshua (March 22, 2006). Md. legislature kills same-sex marriage ban. The Washington Blade. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ 31.0 31.1 Weill-Greenberg, Elizabeth (March 17, 2006). Move to impeach Md. judge fails. The Washington Blade. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ Eveleth, Janet. MSBA Finds Calls for Impeachment of Judge Murdock Inappropriate. Maryland State Bar Association. msba.org. Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ 33.0 33.1 33.2 "Marriage licensing goes before Maryland Supreme Court", December 7, 2006. Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ Leonard, Arthur. Divided Maryland High Court Rejects Same-Sex Marriage Claim. typepad.com. Archived from the original on April 12, 2013. Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ 35.0 35.1 Harrell, Judge Glenn T. (September 18, 2007). Conaway v. Deane, 932 A.2d 571 (2007). Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ Harrell, Judge Glenn T. (September 18, 2007). Conaway v. Deane, 932 A.2d 571 (2007). Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ 37.0 37.1 Keen, Lisa (September 26, 2007). Analysis: Md. Court Upholds Same-Sex Marriage Ban. Windy City Times. Retrieved on January 1, 2013.
- ↑ 38.0 38.1 38.2 38.3 Linskey, Annie. "Gansler says Md. could recognize same-sex marriages", The Baltimore Sun, February 24, 2010. Retrieved on February 25, 2010.
- ↑ 39.0 39.1 39.2 39.3 39.4 "Maryland to recognize same-sex marriages from other places", The Washington Post, February 24, 2010. Retrieved on May 22, 2010.
- ↑ Doug Gansler: Whether Out-Of-State Same-Sex Marriage That Is Valid In The State Of Celebration May Be Recognized In Maryland (February 23, 2010). Retrieved on November 4, 2012.
- ↑ 41.0 41.1 41.2 Port v. Cowan. No. 69, September Term, 2011. May 18, 2012. (PDF). Retrieved on November 4, 2012.
- ↑ Miller Jr., Ronald V. (May 18, 2012). Same Sex Marriage Recognized By Maryland High Court (English). Miller & Zois LLC. Archived from the original on May 18, 2012. Retrieved on May 18, 2012.
- ↑ Witte, Brian (May 18, 2012). Same-Sex Divorce Recognized By Maryland Court Of Appeals. The Huffington Post. Retrieved on May 18, 2012.
- ↑ Sedam, Sean R. (September 18, 2007). Maryland’s high court upholds ban on same-sex marriage. Post-Newsweek Media. gazette.net. Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ 45.0 45.1 An Ally's Death: Maryland State Senator Gwendolyn Britt dies. Metro Weekly (January 14, 2008). Retrieved on November 5, 2012.
- ↑ Ramirez, Victor R.; et al. (January 25, 2008). House Bill 351 (2008) (PDF). Retrieved on February 2, 2008.
- ↑ Madaleno, Richard; et al. (January 25, 2008). Senate Bill 290 (2008). Retrieved on February 2, 2008.
- ↑ Malik, Alia. "Gays Plan Rights Fight From the right to marriage to recognition of their needs on a broad array of social and economic issues, Equity Maryland leader hopes for significant legislative gains", January 28, 2008. Retrieved on March 9, 2013.
- ↑ Equality Maryland Lobby Day. Archived from the original on February 6, 2008. Retrieved on February 3, 2008.
- ↑ House Bill 1345 (2008). mgaleg.maryland.gov (November 23, 2008). Retrieved on November 5, 2012.
- ↑ AP Source. "Medical rights for gay couples approved in Md.", April 4, 2008. Retrieved on March 9, 2013.
- ↑ Smitherman, Laura. "Domestic partner bill advances", March 15, 2008. Retrieved on March 9, 2013.
- ↑ Maryland domestic partner legislation (October 2008). Retrieved on March 9, 2013.
- ↑ 54.0 54.1 54.2 54.3 54.4 Wagner, John. "Maryland House derails bill that would legalize same-sex marriage", The Washington Post, March 12, 2011. Retrieved on March 9, 2013.
- ↑ 55.0 55.1 Tavernise, Sabrina. "Same-Sex Marriage Bill Falls Short in Maryland", The New York Times, March 11, 2011. Retrieved on March 9, 2013.
- ↑ 56.0 56.1 Hughes, Brian. "Religious objections kill gay marriage bill", Washingtonexaminer.com, March 12, 2011. Retrieved on March 9, 2013.
- ↑ Lobianco, Tom. "Maryland Gay Marriage Bill Dies Without Final Vote", March 11, 2011. Retrieved on January 8, 2013.
- ↑ Sam Arora's disgraceful wavering on marriage equality in Maryland. The Washington Post. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
- ↑ Linkskey, Annie. "O'Malley introduces same-sex marriage bill", January 23, 2012. Retrieved on March 9, 2013.
- ↑ Volsky, Igor. "Maryland’s Same-Sex Marriage Bill Includes Most ‘Explicit’ Religious Conscience Protections", January 25, 2012. Retrieved on February 19, 2012.
- ↑ Annie Linskey. "Maryland lawmakers under national pressure on marriage bill", February 17, 2012. Retrieved on February 20, 2012.
- ↑ "Maryland House Of Delegates Passes Marriage Equality Bill", ThinkProgress, February 17, 2012. Retrieved on February 17, 2012.
- ↑ Hill, David. "Maryland senate approves same-sex marriage bill", February 23, 2012. Retrieved on February 24, 2012.
- ↑ Tavernise, Sabrina. "In Maryland, House Passes Bill to Let Gays Wed", February 17, 2012. Retrieved on Sabrina Tavernise.
- ↑ Ricardo Lopez. "Maryland governor to sign same-sex marriage bill today", The Los Angeles Times, March 1, 2012. Retrieved on March 8, 2013.
- ↑ Linskey, Anne. "O'Malley signs same-sex marriage bill", March 1, 2012. Retrieved on June 14, 2012.
- ↑ Linskey, Annie. "Same-sex marriage petition certified", July 10, 2012. Retrieved on July 11, 2012.
- ↑ Petitions – Introduction. Maryland State Board of Elections. Retrieved on March 2, 2012.
- ↑ 2012 General Election Ballot Question Language. elections.state.md.us. Maryland State Board of Elections. Retrieved on August 20, 2012.
- ↑ "Maryland State Board of Elections", elections.state.md.us, November 2012. Retrieved on November 28, 2012.
- ↑ Honan, Edith. Maryland voters approve gay marriage, Maine poised to. Reuters. Retrieved on November 7, 2012.
- ↑ Maryland attorney general issues legal opinion on timing of same-sex marriage licenses. Washington Post (November 29, 2012). Retrieved on November 29, 2012.
- ↑ We Won Marriage – Now What? Answers to Your Questions. Equality Maryland (November 8, 2012). Retrieved on December 4, 2012.
- ↑ 74.0 74.1 Badgett, M.V. Lee (November 1, 2007). The Impact on Maryland's Budget of Allowing Same-Sex Couples to Marry. The Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law, UC Los Angeles. Retrieved on December 11, 2010.
- ↑ Extending Marriage to Same-Sex Couples in Maryland Will Have Positive Effects For 12,500 Couples Raising Over 5,000 Children | Williams Institute. Williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu (February 10, 2012). Retrieved on December 10, 2012.
- ↑ Maryland same-sex marriage law good for business, employers say. Articles.baltimoresun.com (November 10, 2012). Retrieved on December 9, 2012.
- ↑ Momentum For Civil Marriage Equality In Maryland Continues To Rise. Equality Maryland (February 21, 2011). Retrieved on December 29, 2011.
- ↑ "O'Malley numbers up in new poll; majority supports same-sex marriage", The Washington Post.
- ↑ 79.0 79.1 Gonzales Research & Marketing Strategies
- ↑ New Poll Shows Majority of Maryland Voters Believe Marriage is Only One Man-One Woman. National Organization for Marriage (February 17, 2011). Retrieved on December 29, 2011.
- ↑ Linskey, Anne. "Obama earns 55% approval in Md.", March 1, 2012. Retrieved on March 2, 2012. "Forty-nine percent favor allowing gay nuptials, and 47 percent oppose it. O'Malley is expected to introduce a bill legalizing gay marriage next week. Should it pass in the General Assembly, most believe it will be petitioned to referendum and put to the voters on the November ballot."
- ↑ John Wagner and Peyton M. Craighill. "Half of Maryland residents back legalizing same-sex marriage", January 30, 2012. Retrieved on June 8, 2012.
- ↑ Annie Linskey. "Poll shows slim majority supports gay marriage in Md", March 8, 2012. Retrieved on June 8, 2012.
- ↑ Public Polling Memo re: Maryland Same-Sex Marriage Referendum. Public Policy Polling. Retrieved on June 8, 2012.
- ↑ 85.0 85.1 Clarence Page. "Obama's effect on gay 'rites', Polls show black voters' opinions of same-sex marriage are changing", Chicago Tribune, May 27, 2012. Retrieved on November 10, 2012.
- ↑ Same-sex marriage favored by Maryland likely voters. The Washington Post. Retrieved on October 19, 2012.
- ↑ Gay Marriage Poll Touted by Mormons Seems Dubious. The Huffington Post (October 14, 2011).
- ↑ 88.0 88.1 Eric Hartley (February 17, 2011). If you want a different answer.... The Capital. Archived from the original on May 3, 2011. Retrieved on March 6, 2011. archived here .
- ↑ Patricia Zengerle. "Obama shift on gay marriage tilts U.S. attitudes", Chicago Tribune, May 25, 2012. Retrieved on May 29, 2012.
- Visit Baltimore - LGBT Wedding Guide
- House Bill 438 – Civil Marriage Protection Act
- Port v. Cowan, opinion. No. 69, September Term, 2011. May 18, 2012.
- Marriage in Maryland A Fact Check on Maryland's Marriage Law
- Equality Maryland
- Gender Rights Maryland
- Human Rights Campaign, "Maryland Marriage/Relationship Recognition Law"
- "Timeline: Same-sex marriage debate in Maryland".
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