The American Family Association (AFA) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization that promotes conservative Christian values. It was founded in 1977 by Rev. Donald Wildmon as the National Federation for Decency and is headquartered in Tupelo, Mississippi. Donald Wildmon serves as AFA chairman; his son, Tim Wildmon, is AFA president.
The AFA defines itself as "a Christian organization promoting the biblical ethic of decency in American society with primary emphasis on TV and other media" It pursues its views and other issues through a number of activism efforts, including boycotts, "action alert" e-mails, publications on the AFA's web sites or in the AFA Journal, broadcasts on American Family Radio, and lobbying. The legal efforts previously promoted by the AFA Center for Law and Policy were eliminated in 2007. Chief among its efforts were the recognition of Christmas in seasonal print advertisements; the criminalization of homosexuality; lobbying against same-sex marriage, and in opposition of equal-rights and hate-crime legislation that would benefit homosexuals and advocating censorship of print and electronic media.
The organization has an annual budget of roughly US$14 million and owns 180 American Family Radio stations in 28 states.
The AFA has a long history of activism by organizing its members in boycotts and letter-writing campaigns aimed at promoting socially conservative values in the United States. The AFA has promoted boycotts of a large number of television shows, movies, and businesses that have promoted what the group considers indecency, obscenity, or homosexuality. In addition to promoting activism via mail to AFA members, 3.4 million subscribers receive AFA "Action Alerts" via e-mail.
The AFA has boycotted multiple organizations for various reasons, most often relating to Christmas controversies, pornography, support of pro-choice activism, and support of LGBT activism, including same-sex partner employee benefits. These organizations include: 7-Eleven, Abercrombie & Fitch, American Airlines, American Girl, Blockbuster Video, Burger King, Calvin Klein, Carl's Jr., Clorox, Crest, Ford, Kmart, Kraft Foods, S. C. Johnson & Son, Movie Gallery, Microsoft, MTV, Mary Kay, NutriSystem, Old Navy, IKEA, Sears, Pampers, Procter & Gamble, Target, Tide, and Walt Disney Company.
In 1989, the AFA boycotted WaldenBooks in an attempt to persuade the company to stop selling Playboy and Penthouse magazines. As a result, WaldenBooks launched an advertisement campaign against censorship, asserting First Amendment rights. WaldenBooks, American Booksellers Association, the Council for Periodical Distributors Association, the International Periodical Distributors Association, and Duvall Bibb Services launched a lawsuit against the AFA in October 1989, under the Federal Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) and the Florida State RICO Acts, which protect an organization’s right to conduct business without harassment or threats.
In 1996, the AFA launched a boycott against Walt Disney Company when the company began giving benefits to same-sex employees in domestic partnerships. The AFA has claimed that Michael Eisner, the CEO of The Disney Company, "was involved in a media group that actively promoted the homosexual agenda" and was pushing the "gay agenda." The AFA ended the unsuccessful nine-year boycott in spring 2005 after Eisner left the company. Tim Wildmon stated "We feel after nine years of boycotting Disney we have made our point."
In 2003, the AFA, with the American Decency Association, Focus on the Family, and Citizens for Community Values, lobbied and boycotted Abercrombie & Fitch, calling on it to stop using pornography in its quarterly catalog. In December 2003, Abercrombie & Fitch announced it would not produce any pornographic images or sexually-themed articles after the release of its 2003 Christmas catalog.
In 2005, the AFA boycotted the company American Girl, seller of dolls and accessories, because the company supported the charity Girls, Inc., which they considered problematic because Girls, Inc. financially supported groups they felt supported the gay and pro-abortion agendas.
In spring 2005, the AFA launched a boycott of Ford for advertising in gay magazines, donating to gay-rights organizations, and sponsoring gay pride celebrations. The boycott ended in March 2008.
Legal activism Edit
On October 19 1998, the San Francisco Board of Supervisors, led by Leslie Katz, wrote a letter to the AFA in response to an advertisement placed in the San Francisco Chronicle by the AFA regarding homosexuality and Christianity. The letter stated:
Supervisor Leslie Katz denounces your rhetoric against gays, lesbians and transgendered people. What happened to Matthew Shepard is in part due to the message being espoused by your groups that gays and lesbians are not worthy of the most basic equal rights and treatment. It is not an exaggeration to say that there is a direct correlation between these acts of discrimination, such as when gays and lesbians are called sinful and when major religious organizations say they can change if they tried, and the horrible crimes committed against gays and lesbians.
During the same time, the City and County of San Francisco passed two resolutions. Resolution No. 234-99 “calls for the Religious Right to take accountability for the impact of their long-standing rhetoric denouncing gays and lesbians, which leads to a climate of mistrust and discrimination that can open the door to horrible crimes such as those committed against Mr. Gaither.” and Resolution No. 873-98 was specifically directed at "anti-gay" television advertisements. AFA unsuccessfully challenged these actions as violating the Free Speech and Free Exercise clauses of the First Amendment in American Family Association v. City and County of San Francisco.
The AFA Center for Law and Policy was closed in 2007.
Political activism Edit
The AFA has repeatedly lobbied Congress to eliminate funding for the National Endowment for the Arts. For example, in 2000, the AFA issued a press release condemning the NEA's funding of One of the Guys, a controversial book by Robert Clark Young described by a senior AFA official as "scatological." The complaint from the AFA was that the book included sexually explicit material, in particular, a description of a young woman extracting razor blades from her vagina during a performance in a sex club. In a Washington Post editorial in response to the complaint, Young stated, "I find it strange that an organization that claims to uphold family values and to oppose the federal funding of obscenity is not protesting the part of the military budget that goes to support pederasty in the Far East."
On November 28 2006, following the election of Keith Ellison, the first Muslim elected to the United States Congress, the AFA released an "Action Alert." The Action Alert, entitled "A first for America...The Koran replaces the Bible at swearing-in oath: What book will America base it's values on, the Bible or the Koran?", requested subscribers write their Congressional representatives and urge them to create a "law making the Bible the book used in the swearing-in ceremony of representatives and senators."
On July 13 2007, the first Hindu prayers were conducted in the U.S. Senate. Rajan Zed, director of interfaith relations at a Hindu temple, read the prayer at the invitation of Senate majority leader Harry Reid, who defended his invitation based on the ideals of Mahatma Gandhi. AFA sent out an "Action Alert" to its members to e-mail, write letters, or call their Senators to oppose the Hindu prayer, stating it is "seeking the invocation of a non-monotheistic god."
Published media Edit
The AFA Journal reviews and categorizes the content of prime-time television shows. The categories include profanity, sex, violence, homosexuality, substance abuse, "anti-Christian" content, or "political correctness." The categorization is accompanied by short descriptions of the content of the episode under review. The review also lists the advertisers of each show and invites readers to contact the advertisers or television networks to express concern over program content.
On April 16 2007, following the Virginia Tech Massacre, the AFA released a video in which "God" tells a student that students were killed in schools because God isn't allowed in schools anymore. The video claims that the shootings at Virginia Tech, Columbine, and many other locations, are the result of, among other things, decreased discipline in schools; no prayer in schools; sex out of wedlock; rampant violence in TV, movies, and music; and abortions.
The AFA expresses public concern over what it refers to as the "homosexual agenda." They claim that the Christian bible "declares that homosexuality is unnatural and sinful." The AFA actively lobbies against the social acceptance of homosexual behavior. The AFA also actively promotes the idea that homosexuality is a choice and sexual orientation can be changed through religious teachings in "ex-gay ministries."
In response to statement of the principles by the AFA regarding the AFA's stance on homosexuality, which stated, "We oppose the efforts of the gay movement to force its agenda in education, government, business and the workplace through law, public policy and the media," About.com editor Austin Cline stated, "The AFA's opposition here is quite reminiscent of the oppostion mounted by groups like the KKK, another good Christian organization, to civil rights for blacks. They, too, fought the concept of accepting blacks living and working with whites as being 'normal.'"
In 1996, responding to a complaint from an AFA member who was participating in an AFA campaign targeting gay journalists, the Fort Worth Star-Telegram transferred a gay editor out of a job that occasionally required him to work with schoolchildren. The AFA targeted the editor due to cartoon strips he created, which were published in homosexual magazines. The paper apparently acted on the AFA's unsubstantiated statement that the editor was "preoccupied with the subjects of pedophilia and incest."
On the October 11, 2005, AFA broadcast, Tim Wildmon agreed with a caller that cable networks like Animal Planet and HGTV featured "evidence of homosexuality and lesbian people" and added that "you have to watch out for children's programs today as well because they'll slip it in there as well."
Inter-group coordination Edit
Criticism and controversy Edit
In 1989, AFA boycotted WaldenBooks to persuade Walden Books from selling Playboy and Penthouse magazines and as a result, WaldenBooks launched an advertisement campaign against censorship, asserting First Amendment rights. WaldenBooks, American Booksellers Association, Council for Periodical Distributors Association, International Periodical Distributors Association, and Duvall Bibb Services launched a lawsuit against the AFA in October 1989, under the Federal Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) and the Florida State RICO Acts, which protect an organization’s right to conduct business without harassment or threats.
Since 2006, the AFA has boycotted and encourages the boycotting of Kohls stores on the basis that the outlet does not specifically use the word "Christmas" in advertisements between November and December, regardless of the fact that Kohls' was founded by the Jewish Max Kohl and operated by his family until the 1980s; the company still maintains strong ties with the Jewish community.
Southern Poverty Law Center has stated one of AFA's goals is to "help drive the religious right's anti-gay crusade." Organizations, such as Human Rights Campaign, GLAAD, Southern Voice, People for the American Way, The Advocate, CNET, Edmunds American Humanist Association, AfterEllen.com, 365 gay, and QSanAntonio.com have labeled the AFA as an "anti-gay" organization. The Washington Times have stated the AFA's web site is "anti-gay."
In 1998, the popular Internet filtering software CyberPatrol blocked the AFA's web site, classifying it under the category "intolerance," defined as "pictures or text advocating prejudice or discrimination against any race, color, national origin, religion, disability or handicap, gender or sexual orientation..." AFA spokesman Steve Ensley told reporters, "Basically we're being blocked for free speech." CyberPatrol cited quotes from the AFA for meeting its intolerance criteria, which included: "Indifference or neutrality toward the homosexual rights movement will result in society's destruction by allowing civil order to be redefined and by plummeting ourselves, our children, and grandchildren into an age of godlessness"; "A national 'Coming Out of Homosexuality' provides us a means whereby to dispel the lies of the homosexual rights crowd who say they are born that way and cannot change"; and "We want to outlaw public homosexuality...We believe homosexuality is immoral and leads ultimately to personal and social decay."
In 1998, multiple organization voiced criticism of a series of AFA sponsored full-page newspaper advertisements that promoted religious ministries involved in the ex-gay movement. In response to the advertisements, the Religious Leadership Roundtable said the ads employed "language of violence and hatred to denounce other people." IntegrityUSA criticized the ads, calling them "evil" disregarding Christian teachings about the "dignity of every human being." DignityUSA also criticized the advertisements, which they said were "misleading and destructive."
In August 2000, Equality Mississippi called for an investigation of the AFA and its director Donald Wildmon by federal authorities after the AFA sent out emails and letters calling for the arrest of openly gay Arizona Republican United States House of Representatives member Jim Kolbe. The AFA said that because Kolbe is gay, he was violating an Arizona law that banned sodomy. Equality Mississippi felt that the AFA's action were constituting and encouraging violence towards the gay community.
In August 2001, Equality Mississippi voiced opposition towards the AFA for their boycott against the Girl Scouts of America (GSA). The AFA boycott of the GSA was because the GSA does not ban lesbian scouts or lesbian scout leaders. Equality Mississippi felt that the AFA's actions were in response to gay rights organizations across the country calling for a ban against the Boy Scouts of America for its still-ongoing ban on gay scouts and gay scout leaders.
In 2005, Equality Mississippi publicly spoke out against the AFA for the use of copyrighted images on the AFA web site in its boycott against Kraft Foods for being a sponsor of the 2005 Gay Games in Chicago. The photographs, which were used without permission, were owned by and retrieved from ChrisGeary.com. Equality Mississippi encouraged ChrisGeary.com to file suit against the AFA and offered to support the suit. As of January 2008, the images are still on AFA's web site.
Homophobia terminology Edit
The American Family Association and other conservative Christian groups actively campaign against anti-homophobia laws on the grounds of freedom of speech and the right to religious expression. The campaign against "political correctness" attempts to redefine homophobia as a narrow condition which does not include religious objections to homosexuality. The gay rights movement rejects this definition in favor of defining homophobia as akin to racism or sexism. The American Family Association, along with other organizations on the Christian right, object to having their comments about homosexuality included in this definition.
Individuals in the media industry have criticized Donald Wildmon, the founder of AFA. Gene Mater, Senior Vice President of CBS Television, has stated, "We look upon Wildmon's efforts as the greatest frontal assault on intellectual freedom this country has ever faced" and Brandon Tartikoff, former NBC Entertainment President, stated that Wildmon's boycott campaign was "the first step toward a police state."
AFA California leader Scott Lively is a co-author of The Pink Swastika which claims that many leaders in the German Nazi regime, including Hitler himself, were homosexual. As a member of the Oregon Citizens Alliance, Lively was ordered to pay $20,000 to a lesbian photojournalist he attacked in a Portland area church, and he has since co-founded an anti-gay group called Watchmen on the Walls, which has been implicated in violence against homosexuals in California.
Donald Wildmon has been denounced by major Jewish organizations, such as the Anti-Defamation League and the American Jewish Congress. Media Matters has stated the AFA Journal "has long served as a platform for anti-Semitic theories and innuendo." In AFA publications and in interviews, Wildmon has stated that he blames Jews for "profane" television programming, stating that the television industry is controlled by Jews and that they push an anti-family agenda through television programs featuring "immoral" behavior.
Wildmon has stated that he believes obscene content on television and in movies is a result of the media being controlled by Jews, who intentionally place anti-Christian messages and activities into their programming to undermine Christianity. Wildmon further characterizes Jews as more supportive of homosexuals than "average" Americans.
Media Matters claimed an article in the March 2005 issue of AFA's Journal insinuated that raising children as Jews would lead to criminal lifestyles, and that it required a conversion to Christianity in order to make them productive members of society. The Journal also sells The McGuffey Readers, a series of children's books aimed at promoting Christianity to children, and which also claim that Jews are "superstitious," "Christ killers," and that Jews have been rejected by God for being unfaithful to him.
Speaking in defense of Mike Huckabee's comment's on the handling of AIDS patients, the head of the American Family Association of Pennsylvania said Huckabee was right that AIDS patients should have been quarantined.
AFA Journal, a monthly publication with a circulation of 180,000 containing news, features, columns, and interviews. In addition to the publication, AFA Journal articles are made available online.
OneNewsNow.com , the AFA news division web site, provides audio newscasts and a daily digest of news articles, AP stories, and opinion columns. Formerly AgapePress and the news division of American Family Radio.
Center for Law and Policy, the legal and political arm of the AFA, specialized in First Amendment cases. The Center for Law and Policy lobbied legislative bodies, drafts legislation, and filed religious-discrimination lawsuits on behalf of individuals. The Center was shut down in 2007.
- ↑ "Put On The Virtual Armor." AFA Journal. May 2001. Retrieved on 2007-09-15.
- ↑ "CyberPatrol Blocks Conservative Christian Site over Anti-Gay Content." American Library Association. June 1998. Retrieved on 2007-09-15.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Still Cranky After All These Years." Media Transparency. 2007-04-19. Retrieved on 2007-06-15
- ↑ "Conservative Christian group calls boycott of automaker, charging it has pro-homosexual agenda." CNN. 2006-06-01. Retrieved on 2007-11-15.
- ↑ About us: General Information. American Family Association. Retrieved on 2007-06-17.
- ↑ The Religious Right in Washington. ACLU (1995-06-01). Retrieved on 2007-06-24.
- ↑ afaMEDIA, About AFA. American Family Association. Retrieved on 2007-06-24.
- ↑ "'American Family Association' Attacks Ford's Family-Friendly Policies After Failed Disney Boycott." GLADD. 2005-06-01. Retrieved on 2007-06-17.
- ↑ Bagby, Dyana, "Efforts of ‘anti-gay industry’ chronicled in new report", Southern Voice (http://www.sovo.com/2005/6-3/news/national/anti-gay.cfm) 2005-06-03 Retrieved on 2008-02-20
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 10.2 Vanderkam, Laura R. "Internet filter blocks anti-gay Web sites". The Washington Times (1998-08-05) ISSN 07328494. ProQuest ID:32625145
- ↑ Homosexuality AFA website guide to homosexuality
- ↑ AFA opposition to S.1105, an act which would strengthen hate-crime legislation AFA legal action website
- ↑ AFA opposition to HR3685, an act which would prohibit employment discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation AFA legal action website
- ↑ Boston, Rob. "The Religious Right and American Freedom". Church & State. 2006-06 Retrieved on 2008-02-07.
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 15.2 Peter H Stone, Bara Vaida, "Christian Soldiers". National Journal. Washington, Dec 4, 2004. Volume 36, Issue 49, pg. 3596
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 Liebeck, Laura. "K mart, Waldenbooks to face AFA pickets". Discount Store News. 1990-05-07 Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 Johnson, Alex"Christian group suspends Ford boycott". MSNBC 2005-06-06. Retrieved on 2007-06-24
- ↑ Brandt, Doreen. Anti-Gay Group Ends Disney Boycott. 365gay. 2005-05-24. Retrieved on 2007-06-16. (archieve link)
- ↑ "Conservative group ends 9-year Disney boycott". Associated Press (Published on MSNBC). 2005-05-24. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
- ↑ AFA ends Disney boycott. American Family Association. Retrieved on 2007-06-16.
- ↑ Pugh, Rusty and Parker, Jenni. Decency Advocates Claim Victory as A&F Pulls Explicit Catalog, Ceases Publication. AFA Journal. 2003-12-10. Retrieved on 2007-06-16. (archived link)
- ↑ "Conservatives protest popular doll-maker". Associated Press (Published on USA Today). 2005-10-15. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
- ↑ "Ford Drops Ads in Gay-Oriented Magazines". NPR. 2005-12-06. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
- ↑ Johnson, Alex. "Another swing of the pocketbook: Christian activist groupgoes after Ford Motor Co.". MSNBC. 2005-06-01
- ↑ AFA Action Alert
- ↑ Anti-Gay AFA Now Targets Sears". 365gay. 2006-12-08. Retrieved on 2007-06-24
- ↑ 27.0 27.1 AMERICAN FAMILY ASSOCIATION, INC.; DONALD WILDMON; KERUSSO MINISTRIES; FAMILY RESEARCH COUNCIL V. CITY AND COUNTY OF SAN FRANCISCO; LESLIE KATZ, in her capacity as a member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors. United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. Retrieved on 2007-06-24.
- ↑ On February 19 1999, in Coosa County, Alabama, Billy Jack Gaither was beaten to death with an axe handle and his body was burned because he was homosexual.
- ↑ Darren E Sherkat, Christopher G Ellison, The cognitive structure of a moral crusade: Conservative protestantism and opposition to pornography, Social Forces, Mar 1997. Volume 75, Issue 3 pg. 957 (ProQuest link)
- ↑ Hansen, Suzy "Our wolves in uniform." Salon.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
- ↑ Argetsinger, Amy and Roberts, Roxanne. But It's Thomas Jefferson's Koran!. Washington Post. 2007-01-03 Retrieved on 2007-01-04
- ↑ A first for America...The Koran replaces the Bible at swearing-in oath. American Family Association. Retrieved on 2007-06-17. (archived link)
- ↑ Sacirbey, Omar. "Ellison not first to forgo Bible for oath." Christian Century (published on LookSmart FindArticles). 2006-12-26. Retrieved on 2007-06-17.
- ↑ Ellison, Keith. "Lawmaker to take oath on Koran, faces flak". The Washington Times (2006-12-01). ISSN 07328494.
- ↑ "Hindu Prayer in Senate Disrupted." Associated Press (published on MSNBC). 2007-06-12. Retrieved on 2007-06-15
- ↑ ActionAlert: Hindu to open Senate with prayer. American Family Association.
- ↑ Mathewes-Green, Frederica. "While TV moguls dither, parents' guides deliver Policy Review." Policy Review. Mar/Apr 1997. Iss. 82; pg. 8, 4 pgs. Retrieved on 2007-10-02
- ↑ The Day They Kicked God out of the Schools. American Family Radio (American Family Association). Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
- ↑ "Gingrich Says Liberals And Lack Of Religion Sparked Va. Tech Killings." Church and State. June 2007. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
- ↑ 40.0 40.1 Cline, Austin. "Religious Right: AFA Position on Homosexuality" About.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-13
- ↑ Erzen, Tanya. "Straight to Jesus: Sexual and Christian conversions in the ex-gay movement." National Sexuality Resource Center. Retrieved on 2007-09-30
- ↑ Pasztor, David. Classless act: Star-Telegram knuckles under to Christian group, reassigns gay editor". Dallas Observer (1996-01-25). Retrieved on 2007-10-21.
- ↑ "Alliances: Ground Zero for School Tolerance." www.educationworld.com. 2000-12-19. Retrieved on [[2007-04-30]
- ↑ Vitagliano, Ed. "Something's Swishy About Shark Tale", Agape Press (Now AFA Journal), 2004-11-17. Retrieved on 2007-06-24.
- ↑ "American Family Association's Tim Wildmon backed caller's warning of 'evidence of homosexuality and lesbian people on programs like HGTV and Animal Planet'", Media Matters for America. 2005-10-13. Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
- ↑ "IKEA's gay family ad upsets conservatives." Pink News. 2007-02-09. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
- ↑ Liebeck, Laura. "K mart, Waldenbooks to face AFA pickets - American Family Association", Discount Store News, 1990-05-07. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
- ↑ Max Kohl
- ↑ Hall, Randy. "Christian 'Hate Groups' Accused of 'Anti-Gay Crusade'", Cybercast News Service, 2005-06-30. Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
- ↑ American Family Association' Attacks Ford's Family-Friendly Policies After Failed Disney Boycott. Human Rights Campaign (2005-06-01). Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
- ↑ "Anti-Gay Groups Target NBC's The Book of Daniel." GLAAD. 2006-01-06. Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
- ↑ Bagby, Dyana. "Efforts of ‘anti-gay industry’ chronicled in new report", Southern Voice, 2005-06-03. Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
- ↑ "Anti-Gay Group Attacks Commemoration of End of Bans on Interracial Marriage", People for the American Way, 2007-06-01. Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
- ↑ Han, Angie. "Procter won't gamble on gays?", The Advocate (published on LookSmart Find Articles), 2005-08-16. Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
- ↑ Henneman, Todd. "The Right tries to steer Ford: the antigay American Family Association nearly changed the course of Ford Motor Co.'s commitment to equality. The feud with the country's number 2 automaker is not finished", The Advocate (published on LookSmart Find Articles), 2006-01-31. Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
- ↑ 56.0 56.1 Festa, Paul. "Antigay group blocked by filter", CNET, 1998-06-03. Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
- ↑ "Anti-Gay Activist Group Initiates Ford Boycott." Edmunds. 2005-06-01. Retrieved on 2007-09-11.
- ↑ "Action Alert: Use a Religious Right Poll to Support Gay Marriage." American Humanist Association. Retrieved on 2007-09-15.
- ↑ "Best. Lesbian. Week. Ever." AfterEllen.com. 2005-12-30. Retrieved on 2007-09-15.
- ↑ "Anti-Gay AFA Now Targets Sears." 365gay. 2006-12-08. Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
- ↑ "McManus and twelve anti-gay disciples picket H.E.B." QSanAntonio.com. 2007-07-08. Retrieved on 2007-09-11 (archived link)
- ↑ Censorship in a Box, Why Blocking Software is Wrong for Public Libraries. American Civil Liberties Union (2002-09-16). Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
- ↑ Tooley, Mark. "Homosexual Radicals Demonize Religious Beliefs of Opponents". The Washington Times (1998-08-01). Vol. 14 No. 13 Pg. 30 ISSN 07328494. ProQuest ID: 33529079
- ↑ Renaldo, Jody. "Mississippi Gay Lobby calls for an investigation into the Mississippi based American Family Association and Donald Wildmon.", Equality Mississippi, 2000-08-02. Retrieved on 2007-10-12.
- ↑ Sholhen, James. "American Family Association A Sore Loser, Takes Out Its Anger On The Girl Scouts", Equality Mississippi, 2001-08-21. Retrieved on 2007-10-12.
- ↑ Renaldo, Jody. "American Family Association steals and uses copyrighted pictures as part of its boycott against Kraft Foods", Equality Mississippi, 2005-06-08. Retrieved on 2007-10-12.
- ↑ AFA.net: The following photos were taken at the last Gay Games events and are shown here for the sole purpose of educating Kraft customers to the types of activities Kraft is supporting.
- ↑ We Gotta Get Out of This Place: Popular Conservatism and Postmodern Culture By Dr Lawrence Grossberg, 2002 
- ↑ Evergreen International - Gay Identity
- ↑ Some Effects of Identity-Based Social Movements on Constitutional Law in the Twentieth Century, by William N. Eskridge, Jr., Michigan Law Review 
- ↑ Statement by the Gay and Lesbian Humanist Association www.galha.org, Retrieved on 2007-11-24.
- ↑ "Christians slam "homophobia" resolution"
- ↑ About Don Wildmon. American Family Association. Retrieved on 2007-06-16. (archived link)
- ↑ "The Latvian Connection"
- ↑ "Watchmen leader Gives Bizarre Account of Gay-bashing Death", Sothern Poverty Law Center 
- ↑ 76.0 76.1 76.2 "Don Wildmon's American Family Association Journal linked Judaism to criminality, hostility toward Christianity". Media Matters. 2005-04-13. Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
- ↑ Religious leaders denounce Wildmon's anti-Semitism
- ↑ Brackman, H. D., The Attack on Jewish Hollywood: A Chapter in the History of Modern American Anti-Semitism, Modern Judaism, Vol. 20, No. 1, Feb 2000, pp. 1-19
- ↑ Carr, Steven Alan (2001). Hollywood and anti-semitism: a cultural history up to World War II. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 5. ISBN 0-521-79854-X. Retrieved on 2008-06-20.
- ↑ AFA Journal: Homeless by choice
- ↑ Anti-Semitism and the Religious Right
- ↑ National Review: Anti-Semitism in America. - book reviews
- ↑ Penn. family advocate defends Huckabee's statements on AIDS patients Allie Martin, OneNewsNow.com December 18, 2007
- ↑ Right Wing Organization: American Family Association. People for the American Way. Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
- ↑ "News Operations Merge to Create OneNewsNow.com" AFA Media. 2007-02-23. Retrieved on 2007-06-25
See also Edit
- AFA's Position on Homosexuality from About.com
- AFA Profile from Right Wing Watch (PFAW)
- AFA Archive from Right Wing Watch (PFAW)
- AFA Archive from Good As You
- AFA Journal
- American Family Radio
- American Family Association Collection (MUM00008) owned by the University of Mississippi, Archives and Special Collections.de:American Family Association